The Determination of Minerals in Soil, Water, Fodder, and Serum and their Effects on Reproductive Efficiency of Nili Ravi Buffaloes

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Muhammad Binyameen
Nasim Ahmad
Saba Anwar
Khalid Javed
Abdul Sattar


Introduction: Minerals play an essential role in the reproductive performance of dairy animals, especially in buffaloes. The present study aimed to evaluate the mineral concentrations in different types of samples, including soil used for fodder cultivation, canal water used for fodder irrigation, drinking water for buffaloes,  fodder used for buffalo feeding, and serum of buffaloes and their effects on the reproductive efficiency of buffaloes.

Materials and methods: The current study was carried out for three months and samples were analyzed twice at the beginning and the end of the study. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphorus in the soil were checked through the versinate method. The concentration of calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphorus in water was checked through the titration method and the concentration of calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphorus contents in fodder was checked through the wet digestion method. The minerals of blood serum (n = 80) were analyzed through commercial kits.

Results: In canal water, calcium concentration was higher for irrigation compared to buffalo drinking water. Similarly, on the upper surface of the soil compared to its low surface, the level of calcium was high. Calcium values of serum were higher in cyclic buffaloes compared to buffalo heifers. In comparison to all groups, the levels of inorganic phosphorus were found to be lower in non-cyclic buffaloes. Similarly, the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio was found to be lower in non-cyclic buffaloes and heifers compared to repeat breeders and cyclic buffaloes. At the beginning of the study, cyclic buffaloes had higher magnesium levels than all other groups, except for non-cyclic buffaloes. By the end of the study, magnesium concentrations were higher in non-cyclic buffaloes and heifers compared to repeat breeders and cyclic buffaloes.

Conclusion: The mineral deficiencies in water and soil can affect the fodder content in the feed of buffaloes.       

Article Details

How to Cite
Binyameen, M., Ahmad, N., Anwar, S., Javed, K., & Sattar, A. (2024). The Determination of Minerals in Soil, Water, Fodder, and Serum and their Effects on Reproductive Efficiency of Nili Ravi Buffaloes. Farm Animal Health and Nutrition, 3(2), 36–40.
Original Articles


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