Acute Corneal Edema in an Arabian Horse: A Case Report

Main Article Content

Pouriya Almasi
Seyed Ali Arefkashfi
Faezeh Falahatnezhad
Maedeh Rouintan
Fatemeh Zahiri
Ali Hazeri Baghdadabad
Mohammad Salahlou
Ali Hajimohammadi

Abstract

Introduction: Due to the vulnerable position of the eye, eye injuries are very common in horses. Lack of effective and prompt treatment of eye injuries leads to blindness. Most of the trauma to the horse's eye is the blunt type and usually causes more severe injuries than sharp blows. However, in all these cases, at first, acute uveitis with different severities occurred, which requires quick treatment and can have different consequences.


Case report: A two-year-old male Arabian horse with a history of ocular trauma for 4 days to the right eye was referred to the large animal clinic of the School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Iran. All other clinical signs, including temperature, respiratory rate, appetite, and mental state were normal. Ocular examination revealed extensive corneal edema, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) detected by palpation of the globe, blepharospasm, conjunctival hyperemia, miosis, and epiphora. Eye disorder was diagnosed as acute corneal edema and traumatic uveitis. Treatment included administration of flunixin meglumine for three days, atropine eye drops once a day, latanoprost eye drops once a day, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin eye drops three times daily, and eye wash with saline 0.9% solution twice a day. The treatment continued for 2 weeks and resulted in complete healing which confirmed the diagnosis. The treated horse had a positive response to the therapy and fully recovered within 20 days. No relapse or complications were observed during the final check-up.


Conclusion: Acute uveitis is a common complication following blunt trauma to the eye and is diagnosed by clinical symptoms. Since this situation could have a devastating consequence on vision, immediate diagnosis and treatment are essential to achieve the desired result. The treatment of these patients is symptomatic treatment based on anti-inflammatory, mydriatic, and antibiotics. Depending on the patient's condition, the use of other drugs, such as intraocular pressure reducers may be helpful and essential to prevent or treat complications, including glaucoma.       

Article Details

How to Cite
Almasi, P., Arefkashfi, S. A., Falahatnezhad, F., Rouintan, M., Zahiri, F., Hazeri Baghdadabad, A., Salahlou, M., & Hajimohammadi, A. (2024). Acute Corneal Edema in an Arabian Horse: A Case Report. Farm Animal Health and Nutrition, 3(2), 41–45. https://doi.org/10.58803/fahn.v3i2.48
Section
Case Report

References

Gilger BC. Ocular trauma. In: Sprayberry KA, Robinson NE, editors. Robinson's current therapy in equine medicine. 7th edition. W.B. Saunders; 2015. Chapter 10, p. 39-44. DOI: 10.1016/B978-1-4557-4555-5.00010-8

Pigatto J, Hünning PS, Rigon G, da Silva M, Neumann C, and Andrade M. Utilization of enbucrylate adhesive in the treatment of a corneal ulcer in a horse. Acta Sci Vet. 2012; 40(4): 1-5. Available at: https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/2890/289023924027.pdf

Millichamp NJ. Ocular trauma. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 1992; 8(3): 521-536. DOI: 10.1016/s0749-0739(17)30439-x

Gilger BC, Degroote R, and Deeg C. Diseases of the Uvea, Uveitis, and Recurrent Uveitis. Equine Ophthalmology. 2022. p. 441-498. DOI: doi.org/10.1002/9781119782285.ch6

Barratt-Boyes S, Young R, Canton D, and Mohr F. Streptococcus equi infection as a cause of panophthalmitis in a horse. J Equine Vet Sci. 1991; 11(4): 229-231. DOI: 10.1016/S0737-0806(06)80984-6

Degroote RL, and Deeg CA. Immunological insights in equine recurrent uveitis. Front Immun, 2020; 11: 609855. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.609855

Delph K, Sharpe E, Beard L, and Rankin A. Haemolytic anemia and bilateral uveitis associated with leptospirosis in a 6‐year‐old Quarter Horse gelding. Equine Vet Educ. 2018; 30(3): 132-136. DOI: 10.1111/eve.12686

Leiva M, Pena T, Armengou L, Cesarini C, and Monreal L. Uveal inflammation in septic newborn foals. J Vet Intern Med. 2010; 24(2): 391-397. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0452.x

Priest HL, Irby NL, Schlafer DH, Divers TJ, Wagner B, et al. Diagnosis of Borrelia‐associated uveitis in two horses. Vet Ophthalmol. 2012; 15(6): 398-405. 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2012.01000.x

Ratnu DA, Parikh PV, Kelawala DN, Patel MD, and Mahla JK. Surgical removal of eye worm (ocular setariasis) in equines. Indian J

Vet Sci Biotechnol. 2021; 17(1): 56-58. Available at: https://acspublisher.com/journals/index.php/ijvsbt/article/view/2243

Smith KM, Pucket JD, and Gilmour MA. Treatment of six cases of equine corneal stromal abscessation with intracorneal injection of 5% voriconazole solution. Vet Ophthalmol. 2014; 17(Suppl 1): 179-185. DOI: 10.1111/vop.12136

Witkowski L, Cywinska A, Paschalis-Trela K, Crisman M, and Kita J. Multiple etiologies of equine recurrent uveitis–A natural model for human autoimmune uveitis: A brief review. Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases, 2016; 44: 14-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.cimid.2015.11.004

Brooks DE, and Plummer CE. Diseases of the equine cornea. Equine ophthalmology. 2022; p. 253-440. DOI: 10.1002/9781119782285.ch5

Schwink KL. Equine uveitis. Vet Clin N Am Equine Pract. 1992; 8(3): 557-574. DOI: 10.1016/S0749-0739(17)30441-8

Wada S. Changes of intraocular pressure in uveitic horses. J Equine Sci. 2006; 17: 67-73. DOI: 10.1294/jes.17.67

Gelatt KN, and Plummer CE. Essentials of veterinary ophthalmology. Wiley. 2022. Available at: https://books.google.com/books? id=gzJ8zgEACAAJ

Mackiewicz J, Tomaszewska J, and Jasielska M. Optic nerve avulsion after blunt ocular trauma-Case report. Ann Agr Env Med. 2016; 23(2): 282-283. Available at: https://bibliotekanauki.pl/articles/49202.pdf

Williams MM, Spiess BM, Pascoe PJ, and O'Grady M. Systemic effects of topical and subconjunctival ophthalmic atropine in the horse. Vet Ophthalmol, 2000; 3(2-3): 193-199. DOI: 10.1046/j.1463-5224.2000.00118.x

Westermeyer HD, Wilkie DA, and Gemensky-Metzler AJ. In: Gilger BC, editor. Glaucoma. equine ophthalmology. 4th ed. 2022. p. 543-564. DOI: doi.org/10.1002/9781119782285.ch8

Most read articles by the same author(s)