The Innate Immunity Defense against Gastrointestinal Nematodes: Vaccine Development

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran

3 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


The nematode parasite infects both humans and animals, causing severe infections. Their unusual surface structures, in particular, pose significant challenges to the immune system. Vaccine-induced immunity, mediated by the innate immune system, could be crucial in the development of an adaptive effector response. The purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of recent research on the host’s innate immune system, barriers, and cells that respond to parasitic nematodes. This study investigated the nematode-associated molecular patterns that may recognize by the host. Given that innate defense is more than just a static barrier against pathogen infections. It can actively contribute as a director of the adaptive immune response, which is ultimately responsible for the rejection of invasions. Some nematode parasites can actively move through tissues, they pose a challenge to the innate immune system. Furthermore, their cuticular surface, which varies with each molting, cannot be phagocytosed. The nematode’s thin, carbohydrate-rich surface layer, as well as the chemicals produced by this layer, cause the first contact with the host’s innate immune system. It can be concluded that all components of the innate immune response can be activated and play an important role in the adaptive immune effector response.